Word formation rules | Word formation process | Try Dot Fulfill

Discuss major word formation rules / What is syntax? What are the word formation processes? major word formation process | major word formation rules | word formation | word formation rules | word formation processes | word formation process | try dot fulfill.

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word formation rules, word formation process

(Short points: Definition,Affixation,Compounding,Conversion,Blending,Clipping,Alteration)

Ans :

Word formation stands for process of forming new words or word groups. It is a means of generating linguistic units in order to create a new word having a semantic and formal connection with the original unit. Word formation has regarded as a branch of lexicology or grammar. Major word formation rules are given below:

Affixation -word formation rule: 
It is a word formation process by adding derivational affixes (suffixes and prefixes). It's the most common way of creating new words in English. Suffixes are added to the main lexical word classes (noun, verb, adverb, adjective).

e.g.     noun + adjective = nation + al = national
          verb + adjective = punish + able = punishable
several morphemes = de +nation + al + iz + ation = denationalization.

Compounding - word formation process: 
 Two free morphemes make a word joining together is called a compound word.
Ex:  noun + noun

     school + bag = school bag
     table + lamp = table lamp
     chair + man = chairman
      bed + room = bedroom

Compound words may be written as two separate words or hyphened words or joined as one word.

Conversion - word formation rule: 
 It is the process whereby word of one grammatical form is converted into another grammatical form without any changes to spelling or pronunciation.

e.g. Noun to verb:
         host - to host
      access - to access
      name - to name
      ship - to ship

      Verb to noun
        to call - call 
     to fear - fear
      to hope - hope

Blending - word formation process

Blending is the process of creating a new word by combining the parts of two different words. (The beginning of one word and ending of another).

                             e.g.  breakfast + lunch = brunch

                                      motor + hotel = motel

                                      Spanish + English = Spanglish


Clipping - word formation rule:

 It is the word formation process where word is reduced or shortened without changing meaning.

              e.g. advertisement - ad

                      examination - exam

                      gasoline - gas

                      gymnasium - gym

                     laboratory - lab

                     mathematics - math

                    photograph - photo

                    telephone - phone


Alteration - Word formation process:

 Alteration is the process of creating words by morpheme-internal modifications.

                             e.g. ring - rang - rung

                                    sing - sang - sung

                                    man - men

                                   strife - strive

More Information: (For Long Answer) 

Word Formation Rules | Word Formation Processes.

Word formation is a branch of morphology which is regarded as a branch of lexicology and grammar. Word formation describes the structure and meaning of words, the components, classification and patterns. It discusses derivational meanings and categories of derived words.

In short, `word formation’ is the process of making new words from other words or word groups. It forms new vocabulary items through several rules or processes.

Major word formation rules / Major word formation processes are discussed below:


Derivation - Word formation rule:

Derivation is a word formation process/ word formation rule where base form of a word and a derivational affix are attached together and form a new word. Affix includes suffixes and prefixes. They are bound morphemes where morpheme is the smallest meaning unit of a language. Derivation may occur in same grammatical form or different grammatical forms.

Ex: Retaining derivation:

  • Verb             verb

Appear            disappear.

Qualify           disqualify.

Lead               mislead.


  • Noun     -         noun

Friend               friendship

Companion       companionship.


  • Adjective        -        adjective
          Practical                    impractical.


Changing derivation:

  • Verb      -       noun

Starve             starvation.

Derive             derivation.

Inform            information.


  •             Verb     -        adjective

      Bore               boring

  •          Noun     -       verb

 Code               codify.


Back formation – word formation process:

It is a word formation rule / word formation process where a derivational affix is detached from the base form of a word and forms a new word. Back formation is the opposite process of derivation. It is the result of over generalization of derivational suffixes.


e.g.     Word                            Back formation.

            Gambler                    gamble

            Television                 televise

            Donation                   donate


Eponyms – Word formation process:

It is a word formation process where word is formed from the name of a person who can be real or fictitious.


E.g.      Word                 Person.

            Boycott         Charles C. Boycott.

            Cereal            Ceres.

            Sadistic          Marquis de Sade.

            Sandwich      John Montagu (4th Earl of Sandwich)

            Volcano         Vulcan.


Coinages – Word formation rule:

It is a word formation process / word formation rule where word is formed accidentally or deliberately without using word formation processes.








Reduplication – word formation process:

In this word formation rule / word formation process new word is created by the repetition of a root. If the full root is repeated, the word formation process is called ‘Complete reduplication’. Wherein if a part of the root is repeated, it is called ‘Partial reduplication’.


E.g. Word formation by complete reduplication:





        Word formation by partial reduplication:




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