Saussure's contribution in linguistics | Langue and Parole | Syntagmatic and Paradigmatic relationships | Try.Fulfill

Discuss Saussure's contribution to the study of language | Difference between langue and parole | Saussure's contribution in linguistics | Difference between syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationships | syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationships with diagram | sign signifier signified diagram | Try.Fulfill

( Short points: Saussure, Langue, Parole, Ullmann : La langage - Language, La langue - Rules of language, La parole - Usage of these rules )

sassure's contribustion in linguistics, difference between langue and parole
Saussure's contribution in linguisticsdifference between langue and parole.

Saussure's contribution in linguistics:

  • ·       Saussure’s introduction.
  • ·       Sign= signifier + signified.
  • ·       Synchronic and diachronic axis.
  • ·       Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationships.
  • ·       Langue and parole.

Full Answer: 

Ferdinand De Saussure, the founder of modern linguistics was born in 1857 and breathed for last in 1913. He was a Swiss linguist as well as semiotician. He contributed to the field of linguistics and semiotics. He is titled as the founder of structuralism. His famous book written on linguistics is ‘course in General Linguistics’. Saussure’s contribution in linguistics circulated over several branches. His contribution on Sign, Synchronic and diachronic axis and Langue and parole is  prominent. 

Saussure improved the idea of sign which is further classified as the summation of signifier and signified. Signifier is the sound, word or image or the physical existence of the concept and signified is the mental concept. For example: An apple.

sign signifier signified, sign =signifier + signified
sign signifier signified, sign signifier  signified diagram

While a person see the image of an apple or written word ‘Apple`, he identifies a concept of a thing in his mind. Then he get the sign of the apple. 

Difference between syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationships:

Saussure’s contribution in linguistics is also specified in the development of syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationships. In syntagmatic relationships, signs occur in sequence and they operate together. On the other side, in paradigmatic relationships, signs can be replaced by one another. Syntagmatic and Paradigmatic relationships with diagram:



difference between syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationships
syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationship diagram, try.fulfil

Difference between Synchronic and Diachronic Axes:

Saussure also contributed by improving the concept of synchronic and diachronic axes. Synchronic axis is the measurement of a language based on a particular time and a specific speech community. Rather, diachronic axis judges a language researching historical development of the language over different periods. Synchronic axis studies grammar, classification or arrangement of language while diachronic axis studies comparative linguistics and etymology.

Ferdinand De Saussure made a sharp distinction among three terms.

 1.La langage, 2. La langue, 3. La parole. These terms are concentrated on two of them.

  • La langue ( The language system)
  • La parole (The act of speaking)


 When translated from the French term 'langue' can mean 'language'. Saussure intended to mean internal arrangement and relationship of rules understood by a social group. Langue is a universal structure.


When we translate 'Parole' refers to 'speech'. Saussure intended to mean both the written and spoken language as experienced in everyday life. It discusses the utterances and use of langue. Parole is as diverse as the number of people who share a language and the number of utterances to use that language. It is changed by a number of causes. For example/illustration: time, social groups and age of users.

Ullmann has arranged the main differences between langue and parole in the following manner :-

Langue(language) Parole(speech)

Code - Encoding of a message
Social - Individual
Fixed - Free
Psychological - Psycho-physical

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