Manners of Articulation / English phonemes according to their manners of articulation.

Manners of articulation
Manners of articulation

  Classify English consonant phonemes on the basis of their manners of articulation / Discuss English phonemes according to their manners of articulation.

( Short points: Manner of articulation, Stops/Plosives, Fricative, Affricate, Nasal, Lateral, Approximants.)


              In producing different consonants,speech organs or articulators act in several manners. It is manners of articulation. The tongue,lips,glottis can be posited in different manners to articulate sounds. The consonants in English are categorized as follows according to the manners of articulations.

          Plosive / Plosives / Stops

When a full closure at some places in the vocal tract is made,the plosive consonants are produced. During the closure,air pressure is made up and then released explosively.
English plosives are: /p,b,t,d,k,g/

            Fricative / Fricatives

When two speech organs approach and the air stream passes between them with friction,then the fricatives are produced. 
English fricative consonants are: /f,v,θ,ð,s,z,ʃ,ʒ,h/

        Affricate / Affricates

  When a complete closure at some point in the mouth is made,affricates are produced. It begins like plosives and ends like fricatives. 
Two affricates of English language are:/ ʧ/  of /church/ and /ʤ/ sound of /judge/.

         Nasal / Nasals

When a full closure at some points in the mouth is made and the air stream passes through the nose,nasal consonants are produced. In producing nasal consonants,the soft palate is lowered. 
Nasal consonants are: /m,n,ŋ/

           Lateral / Laterals:

While the air escape on one or both sides of the tongue,lateral is articulated. 
English lateral consonant is: /l/

           Approximants / Semi vowels

Approximants are made while there is no closure or friction of the speech organ or the air stream. 
English approximants are: /j,w,r/ .
/j,w/ are also known as semi vowels.

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